Monday, August 24, 2020

The Miranda Rule and Public Safety Exceptions Essay Example For Students

The Miranda Rule and Public Safety Exceptions Essay On July 20, 2012, a mass shooting happened within the Century 16 Theater in Aurora, Colorado, at roughly 12:30 a. m. during the 12 PM film head of The Dark Knight Rises. The litigant, James Eagan Holmes, at first entered assembly hall 9 with a pre-bought ticket as a component of the group. When the film began, Holmes left through an un-bolted crisis leave entryway to the rear of the cinema complex; Holmes marginally propped open the crisis leave entryway as he left. Holmes at that point wore full SWAT rigging and returned theater 9. Holmes hurled two-gas canisters into the pressed cinema before he started shooting into the group at around 12:38 a. m. ; executing 12 individuals and harming 70 others. The main Aurora Police Officer, Officer Sweeney, showed up inside a moment and a portion of the underlying consider got by 911 at 12:39 a. m. An aggregate of 25-cops at first reacted to the Century 16 Aurora Theater; in the end more than 200-cops from the Denver metro-zone reacted. We will compose a custom article on The Miranda Rule and Public Safety Exceptions explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now Holmes was confined at 12:45 a. m. in the back parking garage of the theater, smoothly remaining by the driver’s side entryway of his white Hyundai removing his gloves (Cross, Pruitt, 2013). Greatness of the Incident On July 30, 2013 investigators recorded proper charges against Holmes. The charges included 24-tallies of first degree murder, and 140-checks of endeavored murder. In like manner practice, two-charges were petitioned for each perished casualty so as to build the open door for the investigators to get a conviction (Bryson, 2013). In particular, Holmes is accused of 12-includes of homicide in first degree, after consideration, under C. R. S.  § 18-3-102(1)(a); 12-includes of homicide in the primary degree, with outrageous lack of concern, under C. R. S.  § 18-3-102(1)(d); 70-checks of criminal endeavor to carry out homicide in the main degree, after thought,, under C. R. S.  §Ã¢ § 18-2-10 and 18-3-102(1)(a); 70-checks of criminal endeavor to perpetrate murder in the main degree, with extraordinary lack of concern, under C. R. S.  § 18-2-101 and 18-3-102(1)(d); one check of ownership of an unstable or combustible gadget under C. R. S.  § 18-12-109(2); just as one sentence enhancer charge for a wrongdoing of viciousness under C. R. S.  § 18-1. 3-406(2)(a)(I)(a) (Holmes v. Colorado, 2013). Holmes lawyers have recognized that he was the sole shooter. Nonetheless, Holmes’ lawyers guarantee that Holmes was amidst a crazy scene. Holmes entered a request of not blameworthy by reason of craziness on June 4, 2013 (Katz, 2013). Members The principle parties include: The respondent James Eagan Holmes; The Aurora Police Department (APD); The Arapahoe County District Attorney’s Office (Karen Pearson, Rich Orman, Dan Zook, Jacob Edson, and eighteenth Judicial District Attorney George Brauchler; The Colorado State Public Defender’s Office (Daniel King, Tamara Brady, Kristen Nelson, and Colorado State Public Defender Douglas Wilson); The eighteenth Judicial District Court Chief Judge Carlos A. Samour, Jr. (Holmes v. Colorado, 2013). Miranda and the Public Safety Exception On October 15, 2013 an evidentiary hearing was held so as to hear contentions with respect to the potential smothering, or permitting, of Holmes’ claimed articulations to APD officials during his capture in the early morning long periods of July 20, 2012 outside the Century 16 Theater in Aurora, Colorado. Holmes lawyers battled that the announcements Holmes made to APD officials ought to be smothered to the extent that the announcements were obtained infringing upon Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602, 16 L. Ed. d 694 (1996). The Prosecution contended that Holmes articulations were allowable under the open security exemption to the Miranda rule built up in New York v. Quarles, 467 U. S. 649, 104 S. Ct. 2626, 81 L. Ed. 2d 550 (1984). The accompanying observers affirmed: Officer Jason Sweeney, Officer Aaron Blue, Officer Justin Grizzle, Officer Jason Oviatt, and Sergeant Stephen Redfearn (Holmes v. Colorado, 2013). October 15, 2013 Aurora Police Department Decision Making Testimony Regarding Holmes Arrest .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .postImageUrl , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .focused content territory { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:hover , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:visited , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:active { border:0!important; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; change: murkiness 250ms; webkit-change: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:active , .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:hover { haziness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-change: murkiness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relativ e; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .ctaText { outskirt base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content embellishment: underline; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; fringe: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: intense; line-stature: 26px; moz-fringe sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content adornment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: supreme; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u2f2cb 0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221 .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u2f2cb0ef8f67c7608a738925dfb6a221:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Amanda in The Glass Menagerie EssayOfficer Sweeney was the first APD official to show up on scene a moment and a half subsequent to accepting the call for administration at the Century 16 Theater; he headed to the back of the theater and stopped on the southeast corner. As indicated by Officer Sweeney, he promptly started to advance toward the upper east side of the structure, were he meet Officer Oviatt. Officials Sweeney and Oviatt watched various people with clear gunfire wounds, and a few new blood trails; they followed the path of blood so as to endeavor to stop the shooting and increase section to the theater (D-12 4: Order Regarding Motion, 2013). At the same time, Officer Blue reacted to the front of the Century 16 Theater. As Officer Blue entered the anteroom he watched many individuals escaping. As Officer Blue moved toward assembly room 9, he smelled nerve gas; he radioed all officials to educate them with respect to evident poisonous gas in theater 9 (D-124: Order Regarding Motion, 2013). Simultaneously, Officers Sweeny and Oviatt persevered in their development on the south posterior of the theater; they saw what they accepted was an individual cop remaining close to the open driver’s side entryway of a white vehicle left in the back of the auditorium almost a crisis leave entryway. As indicated by Officers Sweeny and Oviatt no others vehicles were left in the quick region. The individual was wearing full SWAT gear, including a ballistic cap and a gas cover. Official Sweeney saw that the individual’s gas cover was not steady with APD gave gas covers. Besides, Officers Sweeny and Oviatt saw that the individual was basically remaining around serenely as opposed to the various cops at the scene who were endeavoring to pick up section to the structure, or taking care of the harmed. Immediately yet independently, Officers Sweeny and Oviatt decided the individual was a suspect (D-124: Order Regarding Motion, 2013). At gunpoint, Officers Sweeney and Oviatt moved toward the suspect, and requested the person to put his hands up; the suspect went along. As Officer Sweeney surrounded the suspect’s vehicle searching for extra presumes he watched a rifle case in the rearward sitting arrangement of the vehicle, he promptly cautioned Officer Oviatt to the nearness of a rifle case in the suspect’s vehicle. Thusly, Officers Sweeney and Oviatt requested the suspect to look down on the ground. Official Oviatt played out a shallow pursuit of the suspect, set him nabbed, and put him in binds. All things considered, the two officials were worried about the on-going potential for extra shooter. The Officers’ had gotten preparing showing them if there is one shooter, there might be two search for two. In addition, the immense measure of shot injury casualties as yet leaving the performance center under ten feet from the officials gave them concern with respect to the potential for extra shooters (D-124: Order Regarding Motion, 2013). So as to acquire more data, Officer Oviatt expelled the suspect’s gas cover and head protector, and asked, â€Å"If any other person was with him. † The suspect reacted, â€Å"No, it is simply me. † Officer Oviatt affirmed that he used a conversational, yet as a matter of fact energized, tone to address to presume, and announced that neither one of the officers had their gun drawn at the ti

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Social Constructivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Social Constructivism - Essay Example Social constructivism doesn't recognize truth and misrepresentation, making a decision about both similarly suspendable. It leaves a bad situation for the qualification among valid and bogus records of nature in its records of the advancement of science. By being uninterested in whether a science is valid, by treating truth and misrepresentation similarly, that is, by regarding inconsistent as though they were equivalent, constructivists suspend and neglect to see the fundamental. Though it would be a significant achievement for the humanism of science to clarify genuine information just as bogus demands of information, it is a significant relapse for such humanism to cloud the contrast between the two. A focal subject of social constructivism is that no social practice must be cherished as a limited method of getting at truth. No training can put guarantee to widespread, interminable, or setting free authenticity. Social constructivists and different postmodernists try to demystify or deconstruct science's epistemic power. One course to demystification is to contend that science is only a profoundly intricate arrangement of social shows - a digressive development (Foucault) or type of life (Wittgenstein)- - which emerged in a specific chronicled setting and caught the devotion of our way of life, however which has no inherent case to epistemic predominance. Converted into our wording, this position suggests that science is veritistically no superior to different practices, in spite of the unique notoriety it appreciates. The constructivist viewpoint exemplifies various hypothetical strains stemming. from its endeavor to grasp a relativistic epistemology regarding chosen parts of science while displaying a genuinely unbendable pledge to epistemological authenticity in its own work. ( Woolgar 1983: 262) Constructivist sociologists embrace an assortment of systems in their endeavor to protect themselves against the analysis that constructivism subverts itself. A few constructivists only state that constructivism doesn't sabotage itself, with the expectation that redundancy will be as viable as contention or proof. Different constructivists guarantee that their examinations dissect how the first record was shown up at, however have no suggestions for reality or misrepresentation of that account. Constructivists in this manner just scrutinize the view that researchers see the world evidently, clearly, without abilities ( Yearley 1991: 120, 143). Along these lines constructivist humanism of science has no suggestions concerning the legitimacy of science, constructivist criminology has small bearing on the

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Applying The Insights From Assessment Item 1 (order 365496) To Your

Applying The Insights From Assessment Item 1 (order 365496) To Your Applying The Insights From Assessment Item 1 (order 365496) To Your Own Educational Institution â€" Assignment Example > Assessing a Re-Imagined High School: The Coalition Campus Schools Project in New YorkFew socio-civic institutions carry strong impact on the quality of life for the citizens of a country than the high school. High school is an institution so essential in laying the foundation for citizen participation in a country’s economy and civil society. In a globalizing world, school reforms that make high school graduates competent in high-level skills and prepared to attain high education are gradually taking shape to meet the demands of the society (Cheng, 2003). In the U. S., however, the public schools as an institution are challenged to cope with these changing educational demands. One project â€" the Coalition Campus Schools Project (CCSP) launched in New York City during the early 1990s â€" may well be one of the answers to calls to restructure social structures of high school. Such initiative, which involves the transformation of two large, comprehensive New York high schools with eleven small schools during the early 1990s, was the subject of this paper based on a review of a development program. Following the identification of the issues relative to the leadership, educational quality and improvement measures pursued by the Coalition Campus School Project, there will be recommendations to be made based on theoretical approaches in educational leadership. This paper will then assess the different aspect of the project, first as an innovation in design initiative. Also subject of the evaluation is the outcome of abandonment of the standard class sizes for students in large, comprehensive learning facilities built like “factories. ” The paper ends with a short conclusionBackground: Advocates of the small new model schools in New York believe the project is a direct response to the mounting criticisms hurled against bigger learning environments. Darling-Hammond, Ancess, and Ort (2002) said in their papers that with “factory model” schools, students a nd teachers have little opportunity to build strong relationships, which is essential in encouraging academic success of minority and low-income students. This is coupled with other dilemmas, such as segregated curriculums and unequal program options, and slow response in meeting students’ needs. As part of a broader school restructuring initiative, the CCSP was collaboration between the New York City Board of Education and the Center for Collaborative Education (CCE). For this project, the CCSP replaced two of the city’s high schools â€" Julia Richman High School in Manhattan and James Monroe High School in the Bronx â€" which each served up to 3,000 students. The innovative restructuring model was shaped by plans provided by developers’ visions or definitions of what it means to be an effective high school. As a strategy, smaller high school model is aimed at altering the academic structure of the same to improve students’ academic rigor in the curriculum and achieve high educational achievement. Thus, when school’s capacity to change is enhanced, student’s achievement may be improved (Kyriakides and Campbell, 2004). The CCSP, on one hand, appear faithful to its goals of raising opportunities for students’ to learn in a new learning model without impeding their chances of gaining support to realize their full academic promise. On the other hand, although the transformative scheme was not geared toward increasing college-going levels and preparedness of undeserved pupils per se, it does offer the potential to do so.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions

Read and Download PDF File Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions PDF Ebook Library CRITICAL THINKING MOORE PARKER 10TH EDITION SOLUTIONS Download: CRITICAL THINKING MOORE PARKER 10TH EDITION SOLUTIONS / PDF Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions along with the classes as well as books are basically two sides of the very same coin. The classes and textbook aid you construct a strong foundation on which to be analyzed on. Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions on the other hand, allow you to place this expertise to sensible usage. Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions permits you to create in all the appropriate areas. The great thing about Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th†¦show more content†¦Acquire your free of cost Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Pdf now. There are lots of e-book titles available in our on-line collection associated with Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Pdf ...... [PDF] CRITICAL THINKING 10TH EDITION MOORE AND PARKER PDF FREE Free access for PDF Ebook Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Pdf Free. Get your free of cost Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Pdf Free right now. There are numerous ebook titles readily available in our online library related with Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Pdf Free ...... [PDF] CRITICAL THINKING 10TH EDITION MOORE AND PARKER CHAPTER 1 Free access for PDF Ebook Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Chapter 1. Get your cost-free Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Chapter 1 today. There are several e-book PDF File: Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions 2 Read and Download PDF File Critical Thinking Moore Parker 10th Edition Solutions PDF Ebook Library titles readily available in our on-line collection associated with Critical Thinking 10th Edition Moore And Parker Chapter 1 ......Show MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesUniversity, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis. Like all good textbooks, the book is accessible, well researched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips with the field of organization theory. Dr Martin Brigham, Lancaster UniversityRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages Organizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins —San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge —University of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:Read MoreMarketing and E-commerce Business65852 Words   |  264 Pagesknowledge you find in this book will be valuable throughout your career, and after reading this book, we expect that you will be able to participate in, and even lead, management discussions of e-commerce for your firm. what’s new in the TENTH edition New Chapter on Social, Mobile, and Local Marketing Given the growing importance of social, mobile, and local marketing in e-commerce, we have written an entirely new chapter devoted to providing an in-depth examination of these topics. In thisRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagescom/support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth Edition David A. DeCenzo Coastal Carolina University Conway, SC Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University San Diego, CA Tenth Edition Contributor Susan L. Verhulst Des Moines Area Community College Ankeny, IA John Wiley Sons, Inc. Associate Publisher Executive Editor Senior Editoral Assistant MarketingRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words   |  522 Pagesstrategies established. For instance, if a strategy is to enter a new market, the tactics may involve the marketing decisions made to carry this out. Performing strategic and tactical planning activities in advance of taking action is considered critical for long-term marketing success. Identify - Arguably the most important marketing function involves efforts needed to gain knowledge of customers, competitors, and markets. We will see throughout this course material how marketing research is utilized

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Case Analysis The Case Of Dr. J. T, Merck, And Co.

IBTISAAMA YAHAYA AHMED Every organization doing business internationally is bound to face some risks and obstacles which includes country risk, culture risk, commercial risk and currency risk. Depending on the country a business is established, the risks vary in the type, occurrence and impact. Merck Sharp and Dohme Argentine, MSD, the subsidiary of a U.S based pharmaceutical company, Merck and Co., faced lots of such challenges. Antonio Mosquera faced a lot of country risks and obstacles. Country risk is the adverse effect on a company’s operations due the host country’s political, legal and economic developments. For instance, there were inadequate and underdeveloped rules and regulations in Argentine so even though Mosquera tried hard†¦show more content†¦There were statements such as; ‘this is what has been going on in the company’. Mosquera faced problems of high resistant to environmental change hence he couldn’t move at the pace he wanted. Even Sylvia Ring, the Director of Training and Development had problems adjusting to the new environment. Other problems Mosquera faced was lack of professional education among managers, employees were not self-motivated, there was no innovativeness and personal initiative and the promotions were based on relationship. Mosquera, that he was faced with a lot of uncertainties in the Argentina market. He said, â€Å"here, you receive a surprise every 15 minutes†¦.†. Amidst all the problems and obstacles Mosquera faced, he was bent on achieving his goals which is to increase sales, promote growth while reducing operating cost and establish a competitive presence in Argentina by having a restructured plan. His restructured plan was centered on three main objectives which are; to change the old hierarchical management system into a flatter by integrating the management structure. The integrated structure will enable him to achieve the second objective which is allowing free flow of information across the organization. For instance, job vacancies were opened to all and were clearly described. The third objective was to achieve employee empowerment. He wanted the employees to be innovative andShow MoreRelatedMerck Case Study Essay6943 Words   |  28 Pagesï » ¿Merck Co. Executive Summary Case Study Goal The goal of this case study is to examine the current operations of Merck Co. Inc. and determine areas of potential concern, evaluate the effectiveness of the current business model, and propose a plan of action to grow Merck Co. Inc. to be the largest pharmaceutical company in the world. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Care Organizations for Capital Budgets Free Essays

All major business organizations dealing with economic conditions of uncertainty, opportunity costs, and scarce or depreciating resources have to develop capital budgets. The three major steps to developing a capital budget are: conducting a decision analysis to establish a base for knowledge building, establishing option pricing to secure an accurately assessed market position, and creating discounted cash flow (DCF) for making appropriate investment decisions for the organization. No organization can manage capital projects by simply looking at the numbers of discounted cash flows. We will write a custom essay sample on Health Care Organizations for Capital Budgets or any similar topic only for you Order Now A financial analyst for any organization must look at the entire decision and assess all relevant variables and outcomes within an analytical hierarchy. Decision-making regarding capital budgeting is increasingly complex today because of uncertainty, particularly in the health care environment where safety assessments of pharmaceuticals, health care insurance allotments, and other factors may affect the future of the organization. All capital projects will involve numerous variables and possible outcomes-but health care perhaps more than most. (Evans, pp.1-2) In the second phase of capital budgeting, financial management, or consideration of options within capital budgeting is called contingent claims analysis or option pricing. Timing (when to enter certain ventures), abandonment (what past ventures to discontinue) and growth (what ventures to expand upon) are all critical-one must ask such questions as, what aspects of health care in the organization are revenue-producing and/or necessary to the community, what areas are more necessary at certain times of year, and what can be discontinued? (Evans, p.3) Discounting refers to taking a future amount and finding its value today. Future values differ from present values because of the time value of money. Financial management recognizes the time value of money because of inflation, uncertainty, and opportunity for investment. Thus, the more uncertain the economic environment or industry, the more necessary such revenue analysis becomes-and hence, once again, the necessity of such capital analysis for health care. How to cite Health Care Organizations for Capital Budgets, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Police Organization free essay sample

The function of policing is to provide overall public safety. The goal is to deter and prevent crime by monopolizing police units. There are various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal level. The United States has one of the most complex law enforcement systems because of the various levels of their policing agencies. Within the united States, each state, city, county, town, and Incorporated village has its own policing agency. Although there are various policing agencies, the structural organization Is similar because all law enforcement agencies have the name objective. The organizations of the polling agencies are hierarchical. Police Institutions can be analyzed Like organizations with several key components (Alveolar, 2008, Pl l. They are designed with rank structure, separate departments and units. These components work together to form a fully functioning law enforcement agency. There are various types of local agencies. Examples of local agencies are city, county, town, and incorporated village police. We will write a custom essay sample on Police Organization or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These agencies work to ensure safety at the local level. There are many different roles and functions of the local police agencies.Local police enforcement is responsible for performing many routine activities. These duties include, patrolling the neighborhood community, enforcing the law, providing emergency services, conducting investigations, and upholding community relations. Local police are not responsible for enforcing the law out of their Jurisdiction (Congressional Digest, 1965, IPPP). Therefore, assistant is needed at a higher level. At the state level there are also various agencies. These agencies include state and port authority police. State police agencies have many roles to help carry out the law.State agencies are responsible for keeping the area within the state safe. State agencies are also in charge of up keeping the safety and security of our highways and states parks. State and local agencies share many of the same responsibilities. The state police also perform criminal investigations, and try to uphold public relations. The major difference between local and state police agencies are their resources, budgets, and perimeters. At the federal level, the agencies consist of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), United States Marshal Service (SUMS), and united States Border Patrol (SUBS)/ United States Customs. There are many crimes that are assigned specially to federal agencies. The federal agencies are responsible for major criminal investigations. The FBI role as they relate to the law are to Investigate and prevent crimes on a federal level. These crimes Include, drug trafficking, terrorism, and extortion. The SUMS role In upholding the law Is to apprehend fugitives. The SUBS Is charged with preventing the migration of Illegal aliens from different countries. They are also responsible for the safety of our Inbound passengers. They monitor the passengers currency and any Illegal contraband In their possession.They also have to Inspect alarm and ocean cargo. These federal agencies work together to Investigate and prosecute those who commit major crimes within the boundaries of the united States (Congressional Digest, 1965, responsibilities because they are all in charge of supporting and enforcing the law. What define these agencies their resources, Jurisdictions, funding, and operations. In an ever changing society the roles and functions of the various types of policing agencies will continue to change to adapt to our evolving society.